Lifecycle of an Eclipse Transaction

It's easier to understand the components of the Eclipse Mainnet from the perspective of a transaction.

1. Creating a Transaction

As with all chains, users typically start interacting with Eclipse via some dApp. The dApp proposes a transaction for the user to sign with their wallet, and the signed transaction is sent to an RPC node.

RPC nodes implement different APIs depending on the blockchain. For example, EVM chains typically implement the Ethereum JSON-RPC whereas Solana VM (SVM) chains have their own JSON-RPC specification. Since Eclipse can support both EVM and SVM chains, we have to handle both of these types of transactions.

Eclipse Mainnet implements the SVM JSON-RPC. To handle EVM transactions, we run proxy nodes which implement the Ethereum JSON-RPC to receive EVM transactions, wrap them into SVM transactions, and send them to Eclipse nodes which are running the SVM JSON-RPC. SVM wallets can send transactions straight to Eclipse full nodes.

2. Sequencing Transactions

Once a transaction is received, it must be ordered relative to other transactions. This ordering is important because searchers can capture arbitrage opportunities (miner extractable value or MEV) based on how the transactions are ordered. This job is left to the logical entity known as the sequencer.

There are different approaches to sequencing transactions. The simplest approach, which most rollups have implemented at this point, is a centralized sequencer. More sophisticated approaches involve shared sequencers, where the same sequencer is ordering transactions for multiple chains, and decentralized sequencers, where a consensus mechanism is typically inserted into a set of sequencers for a single chain.

3. Producing a Block

Once transactions are ordered, a commitment is made to the sequence of transactions and the sequence is fed into an executor. This is the executor responsible for computing the resulting state of the blockchain. Remember that blockchains are really just state transition functions:

sā€²=f(s,t)s' = f(s, t)

Transactions are received, they are executed, and now we have the resulting (untrusted) state root along with a block of transactions. State root commitments are cryptographic commitments to the state of a blockchain after a set of transactions has been executed. The tricky part is that Eclipse Mainnet doesn't compute a global state root, as this would force a sequential bottleneck. Instead, a commitment is made of the "state diff".

Eclipse block production is primarily managed by the sequencer, which helps the network by providing the following services:

  • Providing transaction confirmations and state updates

  • Constructing and executing rollup blocks

  • Posting rollup blocks to the data availability layer

For the moment, the Eclipse team runs the only block producer(s). Refer to the Eclipse documentation for more information on how we plan to decentralize the sequencer role in the future.

4. Settling a Transaction

All rollups must somehow ensure that the computed state is correct. This is called the settlement process. The settlement process varies depending on whether you're running an optimistic or zero-knowledge rollup.

Optimistic Settlement

The commitment posted to Celestia is relayed to Ethereum. This allows verifiers to challenge the computed state.

A full node is a node that executes all transactions within a block. (Clearly, executors in the section above are examples of full nodes.) Verifiers are full nodes that pull blocks of transactions from the data availability layer and re-execute them. Verifiers compare their computed commitment against the commitment posted to Ethereum and raise a challenge if there is a discrepancy. Verifiers can raise challenges during a window of time known as the challenge period. This challenge utilizes our zk-VM.

If there are no challenges after the challenge period, then the transaction is finalized, meaning that the bridge will not roll back the commitment.

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